The construction of the frame for a hipped roof is a time consuming and complex process with characteristic features. This will require precise calculations and strict sequence of installation. However, the result will amaze validity and reliability of the design with a dramatic form. Before you begin to create this frame, you should study the features and the algorithm of action, which is being built truss system gable roof.
1 Truss system hip roof: composite elements and design advantages 1.1 the unit truss system of the roof of wooden elements 2 varieties of hipped roofs. Photos of interesting options 3 How to calculate a hipped roof? 3.1 How to calculate the area of a hipped roof to calculate roof covering? 4 How to make hipped roof house with his own hands? 4.1 Installation of roof pie 5 Hipped roof for the gazebo with your own hands 5.1 How to make a hipped roof for the gazebo? 6 Sequence of erection of the truss system of the roof. Video instructions
Truss system hip roof: composite elements and design advantages
Hipped roof consists of a rectangular base and four slanted rays. Two end surfaces have a triangular shape. They replace gable as the gable roof. Two other Stingray called facade. Their shape resembles a trapezoid. The angle of the surfaces is in the range from 15 to 60 degrees. On inclined slopes of a roof or Dormer Windows, Bay Windows, cuckoos, creating an even more respectable roof.
This design has advantages over other types of attic roofs:
- design is more resistant to intense gusts of wind that occurs due to the absence of the Gables;
- due to the large number of rays with the surface of the roof more efficiently given the rain and melt water;
- the special design of the truss frame allows you to obtain the spacious attic room, which is especially important for single-storey houses with hipped roof;
- through the use of wood to create the roof frame and the ability to pick up any roofing material, construction of a hipped design is not much more expensive than the construction of the gable.
In the design hipped roof is composed of the following elements:
- the ridge, which is located on top of the roof and is the intersection of the sloping rays;
- four inclined surfaces which are arranged at a certain angle to the rectangular base of the roof and covered with roofing material;
- overhangs are a part of the roof, formed by the grasshoppers or lengthening the rafter projecting beyond its perimeter that protect the walls from moisture;
- truss frame forming the geometry of the roof and hidden under the roofing material;
- roofing pie, consisting of hydro-, heat – and paroizolyatsionnogo layer, which is arranged on the truss frame with the purpose of warming the building and protect it from negative environmental influences;
- water drainage system, which ensures the diversion of excess water from the surface of the roof. Represented an external drain, which is composed of the gutter, a rainwater funnel and vertical tube;
- snegozaderzhateli are small horizontal ledges located at the edges of the oblique rays and prevent the collapse of accumulated rooftop snow masses.
Scheme hipped roof allows more clearly and to study its design.
The unit truss system of the roof of wooden elements
Truss system, photos clearly show, is a wooden frame, on which rests a pyramidal roof. It is composed of lots of obligatory and auxiliary elements, which are mainly made of softwood. In the drawing of the truss system hip roof includes the following elements:
- mauerlat in the form of four parallel bars with cross section 10×10 cm or 15×15 cm, located on the perimeter load-bearing walls, designed to take the loads from the roof and a uniform distribution for the bearing walls of the building;
- groundsel is a wooden beam that is placed on the inner supporting wall and serves as a support for racks used in naslonnye roof truss system;
- truss the legs in the form of wooden planks with cross-section 5×5 cm or 10×15 cm define the geometry of the inclined rays are the basis of the roofing.
- ridge run is the highest point of the roof and presents a wooden beam, resting on vertical posts. They are mounted truss legs;
- stands are vertical supports that are installed on the groundsel, and serve to maintain the ridge girder and the mid-truss legs;
- the braces, blocks of wood, fastened to the rafters at an angle to prevent bending;
- Rigel and puff presented by horizontal crosspieces of metal or wood that connect a pair of rafters, while reducing the arching on the wall load. The bolt is installed in the upper part of the rafter, and the puff at the bottom.
- truss farm – vertical risers for the slope of the rafters;
- crate is the basis for the installation of roofing material. Can be solid or grid, that is determined by the type of roof covering.
During installation of the truss system hip roof used naslonnye, Narozhnyi and ordinary rafters. Naslonnye elements diverge from the ridge in two opposite corners of the house. They form a triangular face sloped surface. Ordinary rafters are mounted along the ridge of the girder pairs. They form a trapezoidal front rays. Narodnye elements having different lengths, based on naslonnye rafters to its upper part.
Varieties of hipped roofs. Photos of interesting options
To hipped roofs include several varieties of designs that have the same number of inclined surfaces, but different device.
Playing style is a gambrel design, as seen on the photo of house with hipped roof. It consists of two rays triangular and two trapezoidal. The point of connection is called a ridge that has a length much less than the length of the home. Gambrel roof design is of high complexity, whose design and installation are very time-consuming and complex process, requiring certain skills and experience.
This design is suitable for the base of the building is rectangular in shape. This is the most attractive in aesthetic terms, the option of the roof. However, the most difficult, both from the point of view of the necessary calculations, and construction technologies, as used here complicated truss frame, which proves the scheme of the truss system, requiring additional measurements and fitting of material in place.
Dutch poluvalmovaya roof at the same time refers to the gable and hipped designs. It consists of two inclined trapezoidal rays and two truncated triangular hips. Small hips don’t replace all the Gables, which is the ability to install a simple vertical Windows, which are much cheaper than the attic. In the photo presented on the Internet, you can see various projects of houses with hipped roof of this type.
Poluvalmovaya Danish design has four trapezoidal slope, which vary in size. Truncated hip not moving away from the ridge, a little below, leaving space for the triangular pediment. Here is usually auditory or vertical window for extra natural lighting, as seen in the photo of the house with hipped roof. This design is the most resistant to strong winds. So it is advisable to arrange for houses located in areas with high wind activity.
Hipped mansard roof consists of two hip triangular and two polygonal surfaces with the changing tilt angle. This complex structure helps to overall loft with a high ceiling, which is especially important for single storey houses. Projects with hipped roof, this design Napanee proof.
A pyramidal hipped roof is erected on the buildings square shape, mainly used for timber frame houses. A truss system does not provide for the ridge run. The design consists of inclined surfaces are of equal size and triangular shape that are joined at the peak.
How to calculate hip roof?
Before you build a pyramidal roof, you must make all calculations, which is determined by the amount of material for the construction of the truss frame, the device roofing pie and installation of the roof. The calculation can be carried out with the help of special computer programs, and drawing a hipped roof. However, it is better to do it yourself using basic mathematical formulas.
Before you calculate the square hipped roof, you should plan the design with the application of all the necessary dimensions.
A useful tip! At this stage you should choose a roofing material, which will depend on the angle of the roof. It is sharper than the slope of the roof is longer and material usage more.
In the first stage is determined by the angle of slopes. It depends on the climatic characteristics of a particular region, the purpose the attic space, the choice of roofing material, which can be seen in the diagrams located on specialized sites on the Internet.
The angle of inclination can be between 5 to 60 deg. For regions with abundant rainfall and strong winds, you should choose the angle of inclination in the range 45 to 60 deg. If the region is characterized by snowy winters, rare rainfall and low-intensity winds, then the angle can be selected much smaller.
For angle 5-18°. preference should be given to roll material, for the angle 14-30 degrees. it is advisable to use asbestos sheets or metal.
Next, you calculate the height of the roof ridge. For this purpose, a special table or trigonometric formulas for a right triangle. After that, you need to calculate rafters, the cross section of which is selected according to the load. It takes into account the weight of the truss, the roofing, the magnitude of the angle of slopes and the effects of the environment. Next, the pitch of rafters and then reviewing their bearing capacity.
When compiling a drawing of a hipped roof should define the unit truss system. View of roof system, the scheme is clearly display, is selected based on their method of fastening of the rafters. Houses with load-bearing walls or pillars of the pillars involve the use of naslonnyh rafters. Where there is no possibility to arrange support, you must perform the hanging rafters.
Advantages of soft roof. Calculation and design drawings. Installation with your own hands.
How to calculate the area of a hipped roof to calculate roof covering?
The calculation of the hipped roof is performed with observance of certain rules:
- General drawing of the device of the truss system hip roof must be decomposed into separate geometric shapes with the application of all sizes.
- The length of the slope is determined by measuring the distance from the ridge to the extreme line of the cornice.
- Calculation of the area of all the shapes is performed using mathematical formulas.
- Each of the inclined slope of a roof is calculated by the formula, where the area of the figure should be multiplied by the cosine of the angle which corresponds to the arrangement of roofing material.
- If the inclined ramp has the shape of an irregular triangle, it must be split into regular shapes and calculate.
- After obtaining data for each of the elements, the final values are summarized.
When calculating total square hipped roof, one need not subtract the area of small items such as vents, skylights, chimneys, skylights or parapets. Their size is so small that will not lead to large financial costs.
Then you can proceed to the calculation of square footage of the chosen roofing material.
Important! Remember that the roof area does not coincide with the area of the roofing material.
Each roofing material has the particularity to meet the overlap, the magnitude of which depends on the specific type of product, which consequently, increases the material consumption.
In the calculation of the roofing material need to the total area of the roof, add 15% of the stock of the material that is lapped. You should also consider the amount of waste which must be added another 20%.
Having obtained the result, you must correctly calculate the amount of sheet roofing material. This total value is divided by the area of one sheet. Define the length of the sheet of material is made according to the height of the slope. However, remember that the longer the sheet, the more difficult the process of its transportation. Therefore, based on the area of the roof, will select the most suitable size.
If the roof has a large size, it is better to give preference to soft roofing materials, the use of which formed a minimal amount of waste. However, it should be understood that these coating devices require solid sheathing, which increases additional expense.
How to make hipped roof house with his own hands?
The construction hipped roof with your hands, drawings and photos contained in the Internet will help in this matter, is time-consuming but doable process that requires the right calculations and sequence of action.
Rafter roof system is a powerful and durable frame, capable of withstanding all the loads of the roof, including the roofing and roofing. The reliability and durability of the roof depends on the correct and accurate calculation of loads on truss system.
It must withstand permanent and temporary impacts. To permanent is the weight of the roof, the weight of all the elements of the truss frame, the weight of the roofing. Temporary impacts include the environmental impact, the weight of workers and equipment in performing repair work on the roof.
With a scheme, truss system, you can begin construction of the wooden frame. First you need to create the main design elements, which are attached to the truss legs.
The installation of the truss system with their hands begins with the construction of foundations for the future framework. For this set mauerlat, which is to be erected around the perimeter of the upper row of load-bearing side walls. Next you should install groundsel for ridge support and mount the vertical posts. They should be located strictly at an angle of 90 degrees. The slightest deviation can lead to deformation of the whole structure. Step stands is not more than 2 m. On the rack it is necessary to fix the beam of the ridge whose cross section is selected based on the load of the Central part of the truss frame.
A useful tip! For larger roof structures it is advisable to install several ground plates.
Further, based on the drawing of the truss system should start installing the rafters in the following sequence:
- installation of diagonal rafters, and the bottom part is attached to the mauerlat way.;
- installation of the Central rafters;
- the mounting angle of the rafters, which are fastened to the diagonal bars;
- installation torque, which is used to secure the feet of the horse;
- the installation of the Central uprights which at one end are fastened to the ridge and the tightening (bolt);
- the installation of the struts, which are fixed to the rafter foot and the crossbar;
- installation Sprengel, one part of which attaches to mauerlat, and the other to the rafter leg.
After that performed installation of lathing. Then by laying the roofing. It consists of waterproofing, thermal insulation and vapor barrier. This is followed by work on the outer roofing selected roofing material in accordance with the characteristics of its styling.
Important! The durability and reliability of the whole structure depends on how well is done, each node of attachment of the truss system of the roof.
If it is not possible to independently carry out work, you can use the services of professionals performing the installation of the truss system, the price of which depends on the complexity of the design, the total area of the roof, type of roofing, the height of the building, the configuration of the roof and the location of the object. Price per m2 of roof system installation starts from 400 rubles.
Installation of roof pie
Pie roofing hipped roof consists of several layers stacked in sequence. It is installed on the truss frame, and consists of the following layers:
- vapor barrier in the form of a protective film that prevents the penetration in the roof system moisture from the premises;
- insulating layer in the form of insulation installed in the space between the rafters;
- the waterproofing layer in the form of a special material that prevents ingress of moisture into the room;
- sheathing in the form of boards to which the roof covering is mounted.
Important! The quality and durability of the roof depends on the stacking layers of the roofing in strict sequence.
The crate in the form of wooden boards section 50×50 mm cross fastened with nails to the rafters in a continuous layer or with a certain step depending on the roof covering. Next to the crate attached vapor barrier whip lapped by means of staples. Installation of insulation is done in micropile space. Further fastens the waterproofing layer, the mounting technology which is similar to the vapor barrier layer.
Important! Special attention during installation deserves a ridged part where the highest probability of accumulation of vapor condensate.
The hipped roof for the gazebo with your own hands
The construction of the cozy gazebo in the garden is ideal for creating a comfortable rest area. Depending on the geometric shape of the structure, you can choose the most suitable form of the hipped roof.
For the gazebo square shape appropriate to erect a hipped roof with four equal-sized triangular rays, United on one point. For structures of rectangular shape is ideal hipped roof gambrel type.
Despite the fact that this construction is more expensive and complex compared to gable, it is the most suitable option for the gazebo. The hipped roof is the most appropriate solution for this task for several reasons:
- due to the large number of sloping ramps provide effective protection from atmospheric precipitation;
- large overhangs can long retain heat which accumulates during the solar day;
- inclined slopes are well protected against the penetration of Intrusive sun rays, not blocking the horizon;
- robust and rigid design ensures minimal maintenance and repairs;
- affordable building materials make this the ideal and affordable solution for your gazebo;
- due to the fact that a gazebo is a small structure, all the installation work on the construction of a hipped roof can be accomplished independently.
How to make a hipped roof for the gazebo?
Before the construction of the roof system for pergolas, you need to calculate the angle of slopes, height of the ridge and the load for the correct selection of the cross section of the rafters. Get the results you need to make a drawing of the truss system, showing all dimensions and relative positions of the elements of the truss frame.
On the basis of drawing is the preparation of the necessary elements and their subsequent Assembly. Device hipped roofs for pergolas consists of the following sequential steps:
- Strengthening the Board the top cord of the frame of the gazebo.
- Mount it to the rail beams-torque with metal corners.
- Stepping back from the middle of tightening the same distance (about 50 cm), you must install two wooden stands with height of 100 cm each.
- Connecting the tops of the uprights ridge run.
- The installation of ordinary rafters with the selected step.
- Fixing a diagonal rafter with nails to the ridge so that they kept the ridge run.
- Installation of the outer rafters, which are fastened on one side to the diagonal leg and the other join the top rail design. The step between the rafters is about 60 cm.
- Laying a waterproofing covering on the rafters lapped one side to the other about 10 cm and fixation of the staple. Fixing of waterproofing along the rafters made using slats counter-obrasci.
- The installation of the sheathing.
- The installation of the roofing material with the processing of all joints with sealant.
After reviewing the design features, you can safely proceed to the construction of the selected type hipped roof. However, it should be remembered that, to obtain reliable, robust and durable construction should not be neglected preliminary calculations of structural members and adhere strictly to the execution of works.
The sequence of works on the construction of the truss roof system.