Cellar – an important element of any suburban area, it is indispensable for the storage of vegetables, fruits and preservation. The article contains information about how to build a cellar at the cottage with his own hands: a step by step description will help you consider a lot of nuances, ranging from proper site selection and ending with the installation of a waterproofing and wiring. The external arrangement of the buildings is also of great importance, and the construction of shelving and drawers will help to use space efficiently.
- 1 types and features of cellars
- 2 the nuances of the arrangement of the cellar with his hands under high groundwater level
- 3 Guidelines for the construction of the cellar with their hands: how to do efficiently
- 3.1 Features the use of various materials
- 4 Cellar at the cottage with their hands: step-by-step guide for building
- 4.1 construction of pit
- 4.2 the Construction of the Foundation
- 4.3 the construction of the walls
- 4.4 installation of the ceiling of the cellar with his hands
- 4.5 the Types and characteristics of the installation of the floor in the cellar
- 4.6 Design and installation of ventilation systems
- 4.7 Installation of stairs and doors
- 4.8 Fabrication of the hatch
- 4.9 Wiring and lighting
- 4.10 Installation of waterproofing in the cellar
- 4.11 Types of materials used for internal waterproofing
- 4.12 installation of waterproofing
- 5 Installation of shelves in the cellar with his own hands: photo and instructions
Varieties and features of the cellar
Not to be confused with cellar and basement. The construction of their own cellars in the country can be as easy as digging holes and minimal improvement. The choice of design style depends on many parameters, such as its purpose, the climatic conditions of region, financial possibilities, etc. Also when choosing the type and materials for the construction of a cellar at the cottage with his own hands need to consider its location.
A free-standing building is easier to build than, for example, to carry out the construction of a cellar under the house, however, this option would require more materials and therefore Finance. To make the vault under the dwelling house or outbuildings will be cheaper, but this option is limited in space.
One of the most popular options is the cellar-glacier. He copes with the function of long-term food storage, even in the hottest time of the year and is especially popular in the southern regions. To build this type of cellar in a private house with his hands is quite difficult and expensive, but the result is a high performance, durability and reliability.
Another good variant of this construction is the storage of the two sections. Usually this type is used when you need to avoid mixing of odors of different vegetables and fruits, which are simultaneously stored in the cellar. To build such a facility need less material than for the glacier.
Private cellars type of wine. It is used for storing wine products, has its own design features and nuances that must be considered in order to implement the correct construction of the cellar. Typically, in such storage it is possible to store not only wine, but also various conservation.
The nuances of the arrangement of the cellar with his hands under high groundwater level
When selecting space for storage is very important to consider factors such as total soil moisture and groundwater level. The lower it is, the easier it will be to build the design, and also less likely to need repair. If we are talking about a separate facility, you should choose the highest place on your site. To determine the groundwater level is best when it is maximal, that is, in spring or autumn. If the area is a well or borehole, to determine the maximum mark possible for them, otherwise will have to drill the borehole separately.
More difficult will be the construction of the cellar, if it is close ground waters. How to do it most effectively? First and foremost, you need to pay great attention to waterproofing construction. Also moisture in the soil for better waterproofing of cellars from ground water is to use construction materials with increased resistance to water. In this case, you should not use wood or plywood, and it is better to give preference to concrete and brick.
A useful tip! To check the groundwater level can and on national signs. For this you need to leave in place the construction of a piece of wool and hen’s egg, and on top of them to cover a clay pot. If in the morning and on wool, and the egg will be dew, the ground water is close, and if only on the fleece, far away.
Recommendations for the construction of the cellar with their hands: how to do efficiently
Regardless of what type of design you choose or which materials are going to use, there are a number of General recommendations that should follow with step-by-step construction of the cellar with their hands:
- if you are going to use wooden elements, they must be treated with special impregnation to protect it from the harmful effects of moisture.
- the construction of the cellar it is best to start in the summer, then the groundwater level is on the lower level. In this case, the soil is the most dry and the risk of flooding construction – minimum;
- to ensure effective food storage is very important to consider the ventilation system;
- if you want to design maintained the desired temperature, it is recommended that during the construction of the cellar with his hands to make two doors separated by a vestibule;
- special attention should be paid to the insulation, then it will have the perfect temperature in the cellar at any time of the year;
- the choice of instruments and materials for construction is very important, so you should familiarize yourself with the advantages and disadvantages of various types. The very building it is necessary to carry out clearly in the recommended order.
Features the use of various materials
Often during the construction used materials such as brick or concrete blocks. They tolerate high humidity and low temperatures, and are characterized by durability, reliability and relatively low cost. During the construction of the cellar of the brick should take into account the peculiarities of operational characteristics of each of the varieties of this material:
- cinder block or foam brick has high fragility, therefore these varieties are not recommended for use in the construction of underground storage facilities;
- silicate brick is more durable, but reacts very badly to humidity. This means that the construction of it will not be able to boast a long service life;
- red brick is an ideal option for cellar in a private house. How to make the construction of this material as effective as possible, you can learn from the many step-by-step instructions from the experts.
If you decide to use in the construction of concrete blocks, then you will definitely need specialized construction equipment, as they are characterized by weight. Cellar of them will last a long time and it is good to keep temperature.
Also during the construction of the cellar in the house with his hands can be used brick has already been used, if it helps his condition. And if you’re just going to sheathe earthen pit wooden planks, they must be carefully treated with antiseptics to prevent decay.
Please note! The use of concrete slabs reinforced with metal, is also possible. But in this case, to maintain the desired temperature would be difficult, so this material should not be used for the construction in which you are going to store food.
Cellar at the cottage with their hands: step-by-step guide for building
Strict adherence to the sequence of actions is the key to a proper cellar. How to make a building as efficient as possible, spending minimum time and effort? This installation work should be performed in a specific order.
The arrangement of the pits
From the selected part is removed the turf, after which the land leveled and the layout. Many photos of the cellar with their hands it is evident that for the arrangement of the pit is often used a specialized building technique, but if this is not possible, you can use shovels and spades. The advantage of working with hand tools is that it allows to retain the structure of the soil. If the land in the selected area of loose, the walls of the pit are to go under the bias to avoid fraying.
The dimensions of the cellar depends solely on your needs, but remember that the size of the pits should be 0.5 m greater than the size of the structure itself. In the process of how you build a cellar with his own hands, dug fertile land can be allocated to summer cottage. The evenness of the bottom after the work is completed it is necessary to measure the level and correct if necessary.
The construction of the Foundation
Although without this step you can do (just covered the bottom of the pit with gravel or the Gulf bitumen) construction of the Foundation will improve the level of waterproofing cellars from ground water. How to make the Foundation as efficient as possible, but not very expensive? You can use the reinforcing frame over which is poured concrete. Recommended height of Foundation is about 40 cm Foundation is a prerequisite for the construction of a cellar at the cottage with his own hands, if groundwater is close. How to make a Foundation that’s right – tell theme video.
The construction of the walls
If you are using for the construction of a cellar under the house with his own hands a brick, you will need several specialized tools. These include a trowel, construction, cord, Mason’s hammer, construction level and a bucket for mortar. For more efficiency you should use the help of another person.
As connecting bricks mortar you can use a mixture of clay with sand or cement. During the construction of underground or aboveground cellar with their hands laying should start from the corners, and the first row is laid without the use of grout in order to precisely plan the position of the wall. The bricks of the next series in the solution needs to be embedded to the point, while the thickness of the seam does not become equal to approximately 12 mm.
A useful tip! Be sure to use when laying wall construction level and plumb. The first one is checked how exactly the laid brick, and with all the right angles.
Installation of the ceiling of the cellar with his hands
During the construction of the ceiling is best to use a wooden Board. If the structure is built under the house, the ceiling you can use the beams and the ceiling the ground of the cellar at the cottage with his own hands step by step is done from plates PKG or slate. The surface may be flat or pitched.
Insulation of the ceiling is on the same principle as the conventional thermal insulation of the roof – the gap between the wooden beams and roofing material is filled with a layer of insulation.
Types and characteristics of the installation of the floor in the cellar
There are many different options for decorating the floor in the cellar, which is better – depends on your preferences, purpose built, soil characteristics, and other factors. You should also be aware of the specifics of each method, it will help you to quickly and accurately build a cellar with his hands. Both the video and the photo instructions will greatly facilitate the installation process.
Dirt floor is the easiest and cheapest option. There is a misconception that the correct floor in the cellar should only be earthy, but it is not. Even well-compacted soil will not protect the room from damp and mould.
If you decided to do in the cellar ground floor, the ground must be carefully leveled and compacted, then poured a layer of gravel with a thickness of about 10 see the Advantage of this option is zero cost of installation, but the disadvantages are much more. These include a high risk of flooding of the premises and the probability is high that the metal elements will rust and wood – rot.
The concrete floor is a good option to protect the room from the perched groundwater. Concrete screed can act not only as flooring but also as the basis for installation of other materials.
For the construction of the concrete floor it is very important to level the surface, then mounted the pillow from rubble and sand with a thickness of 15-20 cm of Sand should be thoroughly moistened and compacted, and the top pour of bitumen. To the concrete base was as strong as possible, on top of the bitumen layer is possible to install a metal grate. You can then start pouring concrete.
A layer of waterproofing, you can mount as on a sandy pillow, and on top of concrete. In the second case from the top you need to pour another concrete layer.
Gender of clay – reliable, but very time consuming in terms of installation option. Requires a large amount of high quality material, so is used infrequently. Clay is one of the most eco-friendly materials. She laid on a bed of gravel with a thickness of 10-15 cm, which can be impregnated with bitumen. Under the clay is to mount the waterproofing layer of roofing material or other material, and the cracks could be formed after drying, sealed with a clay-lime mixture.
Brick coating is strong, durable and have attractive appearance. In addition, the material is fairly cheap and easy to install. The brick floor is laid on a bed of fine crushed stone or gravel is poured on top solution from the clay. The bricks are slightly recessed into the solution close to each other. Also the joints between the bricks can score with a stiff brush grout.
Wooden floors – used in ground options for cellars or where ground water is located very deep. Before installation, the wood must be treated with special impregnation for extension of service life. Wooden boards are mounted on top of the joists of timber, which, in turn, stacked on a bed of gravel and clay. Screw the boards is better with screws, but you can just nail up.
Please note! For each of the materials you will need a separate set of tools, acquisition of which is better to plan in advance.
Design and installation of ventilation systems
If you build a ground structure that the air flow in the cellar can be carried out naturally through small holes. For underground construction ventilation should be supply and exhaust. The output of the exhaust pipe must be located near the ceiling and the intake near the floor. Many photos cellar at the dacha with his hands is seen that the output of the ventilation holes are equipped with special blinds, this allows you to accurately control the temperature in the room.
Installation of stairs and doors
If a cellar is built under the house or need to save some space, is to do an almost vertical ladder into the cellar with his hands. How to make it as safe as possible for the descent? It is recommended to use the handrails. Photo stairs into the cellar with his hands to show that it can be built from wooden boards fixed directly in the ground, and of brick or other materials.
Doors are mounted in a land-based construction options, otherwise, you can use the hatch. To make the hatch in the cellar with their hands quite simple.
The manufacturer of the hatch
If the cellar is under the house or outbuildings, the input partition is used by Luke. You can buy hatch for the cellar, and you can do it yourself. The second option will allow you to get the design that exactly matches your needs. Self-Assembly of manhole includes the following steps:
- chosen place for future logins. It is very important that access to it was easy and didn’t were blocked shelves, drawers and other items;
- are determined by the dimensions of the hatch. It all depends on your needs, but its parameters should not be less than 75×75 cm to the room was sealed, the side faces of the hatch must be covered up with the gasket;
- made the manhole cover in the cellar. How to make it light and durable? It is better to use varnish impregnated wooden boards. They are interconnected slats, and one side of the cover is nailed a sheet of plywood. If we are talking about the cellar in a residential building, above the manhole cover can bind the same flooring as the floor around her. It is worth considering that if the planned arrangement for the hatch of the cellar under the tile, its design needs to be made of fairly durable material that can withstand all the ceramics. If you prefer to use steel, then the cover will need a sheet of thickness not less than 3 mm, which is welded on a metal frame;
- attached handle. The best option would be a special hidden or folding design. If the cellar is located in a nonresidential premises or there is a need to save money, you can use a conventional door handle;
- bolted hinges. It can be conventional hinges or a car with springs. The latter option will make it easier to open the lid and locking it in any position.
Answers to the question of how to make a hatch in the cellar with their hands, there are many, so you should choose the option best suited to your specific case.
Wiring and lighting
Due to the fact that the construction of the cellar provides for a high moisture content, posting it must be securely isolated. The best option for the wiring are copper wire with dual insulation layer. The bulb should be placed in the most dry places and in addition be fitted with protective caps. It is strictly forbidden to do sockets when building a cellar. How to do the wiring as safe as possible, you can look at video tutorials from the experts.
Installation of waterproofing in the cellar
As mentioned, isolation from moisture is a very important point in the construction of a cellar at the cottage with his own hands. How to make the most effective waterproofing – there are plenty of options, and selecting the optimal one depends on the moisture level of the soil and the design features of the building.
Waterproofing can be external or internal. External is done at the stage of construction, while the outside walls are sheathed with insulating material and mounted drains, drainage wells and other structures. Internal insulation is done after the cellar is built. In this case, before the use of insulating materials should be withdrawal of groundwater, otherwise you will be ineffective.
The types of materials used for internal waterproofing
If you have a cellar at the cottage with his own hands from waterproof concrete, then you are unlikely to need additional covering of insulating material. But for construction of brick you can use the following types of waterproofing:
- mastic or bitumen – used in cases where the groundwater level is below the floor level. The solution is heated and a thin layer applied to the walls, resulting in a reliable water-proof film;
- penetrating waterproofing – the most expensive, but most effective option. It is good because it increases not only the level of resistance of walls to moisture, but their resistance to frost. Also, the penetrating waterproofing securely seals all the cracks and micropores, is characterized by long service life and fast installation;
- polymer solution on the basis of cement is one of the most reliable and easy to applied materials for waterproofing. It fits snugly to walls and protects them from mechanical damage;
- proof membrane – is composed of various polymers, among which are very popular liquid rubber-based bitumen.
Please note! Very important to have effective ventilation for the reliable waterproofing of a cellar at the cottage with his own hands. How to build the ventilation system so that the store does not condense any moisture? This is best suited to the installation of the air handling system.
Installation procedure of waterproofing
Numerous photo of the cellar in a private house, it is seen that waterproofing can be hidden under decorative wall panels. It is not mandatory, and only affects the appearance of the walls. The nuances of installation of the waterproofing layer will depend on the type of the selected material.
Waterproofing using bitumen or mastic for the walls of the cellar under the house to do with their hands, as a rule, will not be difficult. For this, the walls must first be plastered, and the waterproofing is best applied in two layers. Before the final drying of the coating it is recommended to sprinkle fine dry sand.
Prior to installation of penetrating waterproofing, the surface of the walls should be thoroughly cleaned of dirt and dust, then moisten with water. After applying the insulation layer in a few days it is also necessary to constantly moisturize. Concrete walls prior to installation of penetrating waterproofing handled wire brush.
For applying the liquid rubber, the walls must be aligned and clean. Then the surface is primed and at her with a brush, spatula or roller to apply the waterproofing material. Finishing materials can be installed directly on a layer of liquid rubber after it dries. Photo wine cellars, for example, shows that the wood-panelled walls.
Cement-polymer mixture is applied to the well moistened wall using a notched trowel or brush. This is best done in several layers.
Installation of shelves in the cellar with his own hands: photo and instructions
Shelves and racks – essential elements of any cellar and basement. There are several types of shelving for the cellar that you can buy in specialized stores, but much easier and more economical to make them myself. The most popular options are:
- racks made of wood – one of the most common answers to the question of what to do shelf in the cellar. The material is environmentally friendly and easy to work, and for shelving it is best to use a beam cross section 100×100 mm and a Board thickness of 3-4 cm diagram of the installation is very simple – made from timber stands in which propisyvayutsya socket for fixing the shelves. To shelves made of wood last longer, they are impregnated with special solutions;
- concrete shelves – good option if you want to know how to make the shelves in the cellar the most durable and resistant to moisture. To create a concrete shelves you can use slabs of reinforced concrete or niches in the walls that are poured concrete screed;
- the shelf of the steel area used in rooms with low humidity levels, otherwise the design may very quickly start to rust. To make a shelf in the cellar for jars, usually used welder, but you can do simple screws. First of metal rods frame, then mounted shelves;
- plastic shelving is one of the most economical and easy options, which is attractive in appearance and resistant to moisture. However, plastic is quite not resistant to low temperature, so can not boast durability.
A useful tip! Wondering about how to make a shelf in the cellar with their hands, and what material to choose, consider the level of humidity in the room, as well as the average weight of cans and boxes to be stored on the shelves. Concrete is well tolerate even very heavy load, but plastic can not boast.
The same materials can be done in the cellar for potatoes. As a rule, they are equipped with removable covers that are installed when needed. No matter which material you choose, in the warmer time of year shelves and drawers is recommended to wash to dry outside. This will avoid the formation of mold and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms.
When the construction and the internal arrangement of the cellar is completed, you can think about the exterior above-ground structures. It depends entirely on your preferences – you can just pour the earthen hill, and you can decorate it with turf or ornamental grass, turning it into a landscaping element. Use in the process of building the cellar with their hands video and photo instructions that will help you to consider all nuances and to build a practical and functional space.